Glossary of Terms and Terminology Relating to the Conventions of Standard English: Analyzing Various Sentence Structures

  • A noun: A part of speech that names a person, place or thing.
  • A common noun: The name of a person, place or thing that is NOT a particular or specific person place or thing.
  • A proper noun: The name of a particular or specific person, place or thing.
  • A singular noun: The name of one singular person, place or thing.
  • A plural noun: The name of more than one or multiple persons, places or things.
  • A possessive noun: The part of speech that conveys possession and ownership by one or more persons, places or things.
  • Countable nouns: The type of noun that can be transformed into a plural form from a singular form of a countable noun.
  • Noncountable or uncountable nouns: The type of noun that cannot be transformed into a plural form from a singular form of a uncountable noun.
  • A collective noun: The type of noun that convey the names of persons, places and things that are groups of persons, places and things despite the fact that collection nouns are singular
  • Concrete nouns: The type of noun that names a person, place or thing that can be empirically known through the senses.
  • Abstract nouns: The type of noun that names a person, place or thing that CANNOT be sensed with empirical means.
  • A pronoun: A part of speech that is used to substitute for and replace a noun.
  • Singular pronouns: A part of speech that is used to substitute for and replace a singular noun and one person, place or thing.
  • Plural pronouns: A part of speech that is used to substitute for and replace a plural noun and more than one person, place or thing.
  • Personal pronouns: Those pronouns that refer to a person or persons.
  • Possessive pronouns: Those pronouns that refer to a person's, place's, or thing's ownership and possession.
  • First person pronoun: A pronoun that addresses the author or the speaker themselves.
  • Second person pronoun: A pronoun that addresses the person that the author or speaker is addressing as the reader or the receiver of the oral message.
  • Third person pronoun: A pronoun that addresses a person other than the author, other than the speaker and other than the reader of the written word or the receiver of the oral message.
  • Relative pronouns: These pronouns serve a role in sentences and phrases as a connector that reflects back to previous information.
  • Demonstrative pronouns: Those pronouns that emphasize and strongly distinguish and differentiate between and among person (s), places and things.
  • Interrogative pronouns: These pronouns are somewhat similar to relative pronouns in that both types of pronouns can be identical but they have to be used in a different context. Interrogative pronouns are those pronouns that are used for questions and in interrogatory sentences.
  • Indefinite pronouns: These pronouns account for perhaps the majority of pronoun that are used; these pronouns are preceded with common prefixes and they can also occur alone and without a prefix.
  • Adjectives: A part of speech that modifies, qualifies, describes, amplifies, lessens, and gives more precise and exact meanings to nouns and pronouns.
  • Adverbs: A part of speech that modifies, qualifies, describes, amplifies, lessens, and gives more precise and exact meanings to verbs, adjectives and other adverbs.
  • Predicative adjective: A type of adjective that is used to describe, modify, and qualify nouns and pronouns; this type of adjective typically occurs after the noun or pronoun that they modify in the sentence.
  • Attributive adjective: A type of adjective that typically comes before the noun or pronoun that they describe, modify, and qualify.
  • Nominal adjective: A type of adjective that relates to and describes masses or groups of people, places and things.
  • Comparative adjectives: A type of adjective that compares two people, two places or two things in terms of some characteristic.
  • Superlative adjectives: A type of adjective that compares more than two people, more than two places or more than two things in terms of some characteristic.
  • Verb: A part of speech that is an action or the state of being.
  • Action verb: A type of verb that that is some physical or mental action that occurs.
  • Verbs of being: A type of verb that tells you about the subject of the sentence in terms of what it is or what it is like.
  • Helping verbs: A type of verb that consist of two words. One word is a main verb and the other is the auxiliary verb.
  • Participle: The helping or auxiliary part of a verb.
  • Present participles: Participles that are the words that are occurring at the present time. Present participles often end with "ing".
  • Past participles: Participles that are the words that occurred in the past. They are past tense participles. Past participles typically end with "ed" or "d".
  • Helping or auxiliary verbs used with present participles: These verbs are used for a present participle and these words include words such as "is", "are", and "has".
  • Helping or auxiliary verbs used with past participles: These verbs are used for a past participle and these words include words such as "were" and "was" and "had".
  • Tense of the Sentence - Verb Agreement: The grammatically correct need for the verb to be in agreement with the tense of the sentence which can be the present tense, the past tense or the future tense.
  • Present tense verb: A verb that conveys the fact that an action or state of being is occurring at the present time, that is, the action or the state of being is occurring when the sentence is written or when the word is spoken.
  • Simple present tense verbs: The simple present tense verbs refer to actions or the state of being that is currently occurring, actions or the state of being that occur over and over again like going to church every Sunday and actions or the state of being that is always true and occurring like the sun rises every day.
  • The present progressive tense of verbs: The present progressive tense of verbs refer to the present and current time and these verbs includes those verbs that have a preceding verb of being that reflects the present tense.
  • Past tense verb: A verb that conveys the fact that an action or state of being has or had occurred in the past, that is, the action or the state of being had occurred before the sentence was written or before the word is spoken.
  • Simple past tense verbs: The simple past tense verbs refer to actions or the state of being that occurred in the past, actions or the state of being that occurred over and over again in the past like having gone to church every Sunday and actions or the state of being that was always true in the past.
  • The past progressive tense of verbs: The past progressive tense of verbs refer to the past and these verbs includes those verbs that have a preceding verb of being that reflects the past tense.
  • Future tense verbs: Verbs that refer to actions or the state of being that will occur in the future. Future tense verbs will occur after the present and current time.
  • Subject - Verb Agreement for Nouns and Pronouns: The grammatically correct need for the subject of the sentence to be in agreement with and consistent with the verb in the sentence in terms of the singular and plural forms of the subject noun and/or pronoun and the singular and plural forms of the verb in the sentence.
  • Transitive verbs: The type of verb that is followed by a noun, which is the direct object of the transitive verb. The noun following the transitive verb is acted on by the transitive verb.
  • Intransitive verbs: The type of verb that , in contrast to transitive verbs, are not followed with a direct object. Instead, intransitive verbs are followed by an adverb or the end of a sentence.
  • Ditransitive verbs: The type of verb that consists of those verbs that are followed by two objects. The first of these objects is an indirect object and the second objective is a direct object.
  • The active voice of a verb: The active voice occurs when the subject of the sentence acts on, impacts on and performs the action of the verb.
  • The passive voice of a verb: The passive voice occurs when the subject of the sentence is acted on and impacted on by the verb.
  • Adverbs: The part of speech that is used to modify, qualify, describe, amplify, lessen, limit and give more precise and exact meanings to verbs, other adverbs, adjectives and some prepositional phrases.
  • Prepositions: The part of speech that is used to connect words to each other in a phrase or a sentence.
  • Conjunctions: The part of speech, as the name implies, that are connectors that form junctions and linkages that connect words, clauses and phrases in sentences.
  • Coordinating conjunctions: Those conjunctions, or connecting words, that join more than two sentences, two or more main clauses, two or more words, two or more sentences and two or more parts of speech.
  • Correlative conjunctions: Those conjunctions that consist of a pair of conjunctions that are used in the same sentence in concert with each other.
  • Subordinating conjunctions: Those conjunctions that join an independent clause and a dependent clause and they can also be utilized to preface an adverb clause.
  • Interjections: A part of speech that expresses strong emotions and feelings, both positive and negative in nature.
  • Primary interjections: Those interjection words that function only as interjections and not other parts of speech.
  • Secondary interjections: Those interjection words that function as interjections and can also function as other parts of speech, including nouns and adjectives.
  • Single word interjections: Those interjections that are only one word.
  • Phrase interjections: Those interjections that consist of a phrase rather than simply one word.
  • Articles: A part of speech that is also referred to as a determiner; this part of speech describes, specifies and limits another part of speech, primarily nouns, pronouns and noun phrases.
  • A clause: The smallest of grammatical units, when compared to a phrase and a sentence. A clause can consist of a subject, a verb phrase, a predicate, a verb and perhaps an object of the sentence and a modifier. Clauses have a subject that is actively doing or performing the verb.
  • A phrase: A grammatical unit that consists of a series of words that does NOT have a subject that is performing or doing the verb like clauses do.
  • A sentence: A collection of one or more words that are correctly and grammatically linked to each other and convey and communicate a complete thought.
  • Declaratory or statement related sentence: A sentence which is sometimes also referred to as a declarative sentence, declare something or they make a statement about something.
  • Interrogatory or question sentence: A type of sentence that asks a question.
  • Exclamatory sentence: A type of sentence that conveys and communicates a strong emotion or thought.
  • Imperative or command sentence: A type of sentence that conveys and communicates a command or imperative.
  • Simple sentences: Sentences that have one, and only one, independent clause and no dependent clauses at all.
  • Compound sentences: Sentences that consist of multiple independent clauses, that is more than one independent clause or two or more independent clauses, that are connected and joined together with conjunctions, punctuation or both conjunctions and punctuation. Compound sentences, like simple sentences, do not have any dependent clauses.
  • Complex sentences: Sentences that consist of one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses. The independent clause can come before the dependent clause or the independent clause can come after the dependent clause.
  • Compound - Complex sentences: Sentences that are a mix of compound sentences and complex sentences. This type of sentence is comprised of multiple independent clauses with at least one of these independent clauses that has a dependent clause.
  • Major sentences: Regular sentences that have a subject and a verb. This type of sentence has the subject and the verb as the main clause.
  • Minor sentence: An irregular sentence that does not have a main clause in it.
  • A sentence diagram: A sentence diagram, also referred to as a parse tree, is a graphic picture of a sentence, the parts of a sentence, the parts of speech, the relationships among the parts of a sentence, the syntactic structure of the sentence and the grammatical flow and structure of a sentence.
  • Reed-Kellogg system for diagramming sentences: The system for diagramming sentences that is the most commonly and most frequently used method for diagramming sentences.
  • The Constituency and Dependency system for diagramming sentences: The system for diagramming sentences that consists of separating constituency and dependency into two separate trees on the sentence diagram.
  • Constituency: A one to one relationship of the parts of a sentence in terms of a subject, verb, predicate and/or object of a sentence.
  • Dependency: Those parts of the sentence that depend on constituency and those that are shown on a second tree of a Constituency and Dependency system for diagramming sentences.
  • Hybrid trees: A system, as the same suggests, is a combination of the Reed-Kellogg and Contingency and Dependency systems of sentence diagramming.

Parts of Speech

The conventions of standard English have parts of speech. A part of speech is a broad category or classification of words used in the English language that have commonalities and similarities in terms of their grammatical usage, similar syntax and similar positioning in a grammatically correct sentence.

The nine parts of speech that are used in the English language are:

  1. Nouns
  2. Pronouns
  3. Adjectives
  4. Verbs
  5. Adverbs
  6. Conjunctions
  7. Prepositions
  8. Interjections
  9. Articles or Determiners

Nouns

A noun, which is one of the nine parts of speech, is the name of a person, place or thing. For example, the word "boy" is a noun and the word "boy" is a term used to name a person; Los Angeles is a noun that names a place and the word "computer" is the name of a thing.

A noun, or its substitute which is a pronoun, is an essential part of a complete sentence. A sentence is not a sentence without a noun or a pronoun except when that noun or pronoun, as the subject of the sentence is understood. These special understood subjects of sentences will be discussed later in this section. When a collection of words does not have an actual or understood noun or pronoun for its subject, the collection of words, clauses and phrases is not a sentence.

Nouns can be further classified as:

Common Nouns and Proper Nouns

A common noun is the name of a person, place or thing that is NOT a particular or specific person place or thing. Unless the common noun is the first word in a sentence, common nouns begin with a lower case letter, rather than an upper case capital letter.

A proper noun is the name of a particular or specific person, place or thing. Proper nouns begin with an upper case or capital letter, rather than a lower case letter, because proper nouns identify a specific person, place or thing.

Examples of common nouns include:

People: Man, woman, nurse, doctor, president, challenger, winner, baseball player, and police officer

Places: City, garden, museum, country, county, house, sports stadium, gym, hospital, and capital

Things: Dog, cat, toy, floor, table, orchestra, rock band, book, chair, computer, social media platform, device and medication

Examples of proper nouns include:

People: Sir Lancelot (a particular and specific man), Queen Mary (a particular and specific woman), Florence Nightingale (a particular and specific nurse), Dr Hyde (a particular and specific doctor), President Donald Trump (a particular and specific president), The New York Yankees (a particular and specific baseball team), Derek Jeter (a particular and specific baseball player), and Lieutenant Patrick Taylor (a particular and specific police officer).

Places: New York City (a particular and specific city), Covington Botanical Gardens (a particular and specific garden), Metropolitan Museum of Art (a particular and specific museum), India (a particular and specific country), Loudon County (a particular and specific county), The White House (a particular and specific house), Yankee Stadium (a particular and specific sports stadium), Atlantis Gym (a particular and specific gym), Mount Sinai Medical Center (a particular and specific hospital), and Washington DC (a particular and specific capital).

Things: Lassie (a particular and specific dog), Garfield (a particular and specific cat), Tickle Me Elmo (a particular and specific toy), The Round Table (a particular and specific table), New York Philharmonic (an particular and specific orchestra), Metallica (a particular and specific rock band), The Bible (a particular and specific book), King Arthur's Throne (a particular and specific chair), Dell Inspiron (a particular and specific computer), Facebook (a particular and specific social media platform), Kindle (a particular and specific electronic device), and Valium (a particular and specific medication).

As you can see with the above examples, common nouns are NOT capitalized and proper nouns are ALWAYS capitalized and in upper case because proper nouns name a specific and particular person, place or thing and not any person place or thing like museum, a city and a police officer.

Singular Nouns and Plural Nouns

As with other parts of speech, nouns take on both singular and plural forms. Singular nouns are words that name one person, place or thing and plural nouns are words that name more than one person, place or thing.

Most nouns are transformed into their plural form by simply adding an "s"; other nouns are transformed into their plural form by adding an "es"; and some more nouns that are transformed into the plural form in an unusual and irregular manner.

Nouns that Transform into Plural Forms by Adding "s"

Noun: Rug
Plural Form: Rugs

Noun: Letter
Plural Form: Letters

Noun: Song
Plural Form: Songs

Noun: Noun
Plural Form: Nouns

Noun: Pronoun
Plural Form: Pronouns

Nouns that Transform into Plural Forms by Adding "es"

Nouns that end in s, ch, sh, x and z are transformed into their plural forms by adding "es".

Here are some examples:

Noun: Boss (This noun ends with an "s")
Plural Form: Bosses

Noun: Parish (This noun ends with an "sh")
Plural Form: Parishes

Noun: Church (This noun ends with a "ch")
Plural Form: Churches

Noun: Sex (This noun ends with an "x")
Plural Form: Sexes

Noun: Buzz (This noun end with a "z")
Plural Form: Buzzes

Nouns That are Transformed into the Plural Form in an Unusual and Irregular Manner

Noun: Child
Plural Form: Children

Noun: Man
Plural Form: Men

Noun: Foot
Plural Form: Feet

Noun: Tooth
Plural Form: Teeth

Noun: Woman
Plural Form: Women

Possessive Nouns

Possessive nouns are those nouns that convey the meaning of a noun as one that has, owns or possesses something. These possessive nouns can include singular or plural nouns as well as collective nouns. For example, girl, girls, and crowd are singular, plural and singular, collective nouns, respectively.

Here are some examples of singular, plural and collective possessive nouns used in sentences:

  • That is the girl's hat. (Girl is a singular noun; and girl's is the possessive form of that singular noun. The apostrophe after L of girl and the S after the apostrophe and the L of girl signals that the hat belongs to that one girl.
  • Those toys are the girls' toys. (Girls is a plural noun that means that there is more than one girl. The apostrophe after the S of girls signals that the toys belong to the plural of girls, meaning more than one girl.
  • The crowd's protests were loudly hear. (Crowd is a collective but singular noun that means that there are more than one person and maybe a lot more than two people in this collective body. This, however, does not make crowd a plural noun; crowd is a singular noun. The apostrophe after the D of crowd signals that the protests are those of the crowd.

Countable Nouns and Noncountable or Uncountable Nouns

Some nouns are countable, and others are noncountable or uncountable nouns, and still more nouns can be both countable and uncountable nouns.

Countable nouns are those nouns that can be transformed into their pleural form. Most nouns are countable nouns and many, if not most, of these countable nouns can be transformed into their pleural form by simply adding an "s" or an "es" to the countable noun, as discussed previously. For example, house, nurse, teacher, toy, and computer are countable nouns. The plural forms of these countable nouns are houses, nurses, teachers, toys, and computers, respectively. Similarly, church, parish and sex are countable nouns and the plural forms of these countable nouns are churches, parishes, and sexes, respectively.

Additionally, unlike uncountable nouns, countable nouns can be preceded by an adjective that suggests a number or a quantity greater than one. For example, qualifiers such as two, ten, one hundred, many, few, most and several can be used as adjectives before a countable noun.

Noncountable or uncountable nouns, on the other hand, are those nouns that do not take on a plural form. These nouns cannot be qualified with an adjective that suggests a number or a quantity greater than one. Examples of noncountable or uncountable nouns include milk, advice, gasoline, art, chemistry, information, money and water.

Words such as many milk, two advice, many gasoline, several arts, two money, and several water are not part of standard English usage.

Nouns that can be both countable and uncountable include nouns such as drink. For example, one could state, "I would like three waters" and you could also state, "I would like a water".

Collective Nouns

Collective nouns are those nouns that are spelled and used in the singular form but reflect, instead, a group of more than one.

Some examples of collective nouns include nouns such as congress, crowd, committee and government. When collective nouns are used they are considered singular and used in phrases such as "the congress is meeting", "the crowd has just formed in front of City Hall", "the committee was appointed", and "the government is having a holiday today"

Concrete Nouns and Abstract Nouns

Concrete nouns are those nouns that name a person, place or thing which can be sensed with the empirical senses which include the empirical senses of vision, hearing, touch, taste and smell. Examples of concrete nouns include man, woman, child, town, home, computer, noise, odor, and table.

The concrete nouns of man, woman, child, town, home, computer, and table can be seen and felt or touched with the empirical sense of vision and the tactile sense. The concrete noun of noise can be heard with the auditory sense; and the concrete noun of odor can be empirically sensed with the sense of smell with the nose.

On the other hand abstract nouns include those nouns that name a thing that cannot be perceived with the empirical senses. Examples of abstract nouns include love, happiness, hate, understanding, inequity, honesty, integrity and fairness. These abstract nouns name a feeling or affective domain response that can only be perceived with a resulting action or behavior and not with the empirical senses. For example, although we cannot sense love with our empirical sense of vision, hearing, touch, taste or smell, we can observe and perceive acts of love and loving behaviors.

Pronouns

A pronoun, another part of speech, is defined as a part of speech that is used to substitute for and replace a noun. Pronouns are often used to shorten sentences and also to make sentences less confusing and complex. For example, an author may want to write about a group of eight friends. After each of these friends are named in the article or passage by their names, the author may prefer to refer to this group of friends as "they" rather than repeatedly naming all the members of this group in the article or passage.

Pronouns, because they substitute for nouns, must be in agreement with the noun in terms of whether or not the noun is singular or pleural. For example, if the noun is boy, the pronouns that agree with it in terms of its singular form are him and he and not they.

Like nouns, pronouns have different types such as:

Singular and Plural Pronouns

Similar to nouns, pronouns also take on singular and plural pronouns to refer back to a single noun or a plural noun.

Examples of singular pronouns are:

  • He
  • She
  • It
  • I
  • You

Examples of plural pronouns are:

  • We
  • You
  • Us
  • They
  • Them

Like the necessity for pronouns to be in agreement with the singular and plural form of the nouns they are substituting for and reflecting, pronouns must also be in agreement with the part of the sentence that the noun represents. Specifically, when a noun is used as the subject of a sentence, the pronoun has to reflect and be in agreement with it as the subject of the sentence; and, when a noun is used as the object of a sentence, the pronoun has to reflect and be in agreement with it as the object of the sentence.

Here are pronouns that are used to substitute for a variety of nouns that are the subject and the object of a sentence:

  • I (The subject of a sentence.)
  • Me (The object of a sentence.)
  • He (The subject of a sentence.)
  • Him (The object of a sentence.)
  • She (The subject of a sentence.)
  • Her (The object of a sentence.)
  • We (The subject of a sentence.)
  • Us (The object of a sentence.)
  • They (The subject of a sentence.)
  • Them (The object of a sentence.)

Personal Pronouns

Personal pronouns are those pronouns that refer to a person or persons. Some commonly used personal pronouns include I. me, you, she, they and he. I is always capitalized and in upper case letters regardless of where it falls in a sentence. Other pronouns are not capitalized and they are in lower case letters unless they are the first word in a sentence. When pronouns other than "I" begin a sentence, they like all other words are capitalized and in upper case letters because they are the first word of a sentence, and not because they are a pronoun.

First Person Pronouns

First, second and third person pronouns are those pronouns that address the author or speaker themselves, the person that the author or writer is communicating to and with, and a person other than the author or the speaker and the person that the author or speaker is communicating to and with.

For example, some first person pronouns that address the author or speaker themselves are:

  • I
  • Me
  • Mine
  • Us
  • We
  • Ours

An example of a sentence with a first person pronoun is, " I am going to church at 10 am tomorrow morning". "I" is the first person pronoun.

Second Person Pronouns

Second person pronouns reflect the person that an author or speaker is communicating to and with.

Some second person pronouns that are directed to a person that you are communicating with are:

  • You
  • Yours
  • Your
  • Yourself

An example of a sentence with a second person pronoun is "Are you going to the movies by yourself?" You and yourself are second person pronouns that reflect the person that an author or speaker is communicating to and with.

Third Person Pronouns

Third person pronouns reflect a person other than the author or speaker and also a person other than the person that the author or writer is communicating to and with.

Some third person words that refer to a person other than our self and the person we are communicating with include:

  • Them
  • They
  • Their
  • He
  • She
  • Him
  • Her

An example of a sentence with a third person pronoun is "I heard that they are studying for their TEAS examination". "They" is a third person pronoun that reflects a person other than the author or speaker and also a person other than the person that the author or writer is communicating to and with.

Possessive Pronouns

Possessive pronouns give the pronoun its meaning that someone or something has possession or ownership over a person, place or thing. Possessive pronouns can also be in the first person, in the second person and in the third person.

For example, the sentence "Its fur is soft and shiny.". Its is a possessive pronoun in the third person because it is not referring to you, the person you are communicating with, but it is referring to something else.

Here are some first person possessive pronouns:

  • Mine
  • My

Examples of possessive pronouns in the second person are:

  • Yours
  • Ours

Examples of possessive pronouns in the third person are:

  • Hers
  • His
  • Theirs

Relative Pronouns

Relative pronouns serve a role in sentences and phrases as a connector that reflects back to previous information. Relative pronouns relate back to a noun or pronoun before it in a phrase, sentence or a reading passage.

The most commonly used relative pronouns are:

  • Who
  • Whose
  • Which
  • That
  • Whom
  • What

The above pronouns include these pronouns when they are NOT used in an interrogatory phrase or sentence; when some of these above relative pronouns, such as "what" and "whom", are used in an interrogatory phrase or sentence, they are interrogatory pronouns and not relative pronouns. interrogatory pronouns are described and discussed below.

Here are some examples of relative pronouns used in sentences:

  • "Christopher knew who committed the crime". (Who, the relative pronoun, refers back to previous information or subsequent information that was stated in the context of this sentence about who could have committed the crime.)
  • "It was the TEAS test that was so difficult". (That, the relative pronoun, relates to and refers back to the TEAS test.)
  • "These are the bats which the team preferred". (Which, the relative pronoun, relates to and refers back to the bats.)
  • He was able to figure out whose books those were. (Whose, the relative pronoun, relates to and refers back to previous or subsequent information that was stated in the context of this sentence about whose books they were.)

Demonstrative Pronouns

Demonstrative pronouns are those pronouns that emphasize and strongly distinguish and differentiate between and among person (s), places and things.

Examples of demonstrative pronouns include:

  • These
  • This
  • That
  • Those

Sentences and phrases that contain a demonstrative pronoun are:

  • "That is the car that I want." ("That" is the demonstrative pronoun that emphasizes and strongly distinguishes and differentiates between and among different cars.)
  • "Those taste better than the others. ("Those" is the demonstrative pronoun that emphasizes and strongly distinguishes and differentiates between and among different foods.)
  • "These were not the ones that I saw." ("These" is the demonstrative pronoun that emphasizes and strongly distinguishes and differentiates between and among the different things that were previously seen.)

Interrogative Pronouns

Interrogative pronouns are somewhat similar to relative pronouns in that both types of pronouns can be identical but they have to be used in a different context.

As you should recall, relative pronouns reflect back to previous information and these pronouns include words such as who, which and whose. These same pronouns, that is, who, which and whose are also in Interrogative pronouns when they are used in a question or an Interrogatory sentence or phrase.

Here are some examples of the same pronouns used as both interrogative pronouns and relative pronouns depending on their use and their context:

  • The pronoun "who":
    • Used as an interrogative pronoun: "Who is that in the store?"
    • Used as a relative pronoun: "That is who I thought it was."
  • The pronoun "which"
    • Used as an interrogative pronoun: "Which cake do you prefer?"
    • Used as a relative pronoun: "That is the cake which I like the best."
  • The pronoun "whose"
    • Used as an interrogative pronoun: "Whose purse is that?"
    • Used as a relative pronoun: "I have no idea whose this is."

Indefinite Pronouns

Indefinite pronouns account for perhaps the majority of pronoun types and classifications. These pronouns are preceded with common prefixes and they can also occur alone and without a prefix.

Here are examples of commonly used indefinite pronoun prefixes:

  • Some…
  • Every…
  • Any…
  • No…

These prefixes are most often followed by words such as "…one", "…body" and "thing" to form a compound word which is defined as a word that is a combination of two words.

Here are some indefinite pronouns:

  • Something
  • Somebody
  • Somewhere
  • Everything
  • Everybody
  • Everywhere
  • Anything
  • Anybody
  • Anywhere
  • Nothing
  • Nobody
  • Nowhere

Adjectives

Adjectives, another part of speech, modify, qualify, describe, amplify, lessen, and give more precise and exact meanings to nouns and pronouns.

Adverbs modify, qualify, describe, amplify, lessen, and give more precise and exact meanings to verbs, in contrast to adjectives, which modify, qualify, describe, amplify, lessen, and give more precise and exact meanings to nouns and pronouns.

Some adjectives can be identical to adverbs, however, as stated above, it is what role and function the adjective or adverb serves in the sentence that differentiates between them. For example, the word "tardy" and many other words can be used as an adjective and an adverb. In the phrase "tardy student", the word "tardy" is used as an adjective to further describe the student, which is a noun. If, on the other hand, the word "tardy" is used in a sentence such as "That student arrived tardy", the word "tardy" is used to further describe the verb "arrived."

There are different kinds of adjectives which are:

Predicative Adjectives

Predicative adjectives describe, modify, and qualify nouns and pronouns and they typically occur after the noun or pronoun that they modify in the sentence.

Examples of predicative adjectives in sentences include:

  • "The TEAS examination was difficult."
    Difficult is the predicative adjective that describes the TEAS examination.
  • "My hat was fashionable."
    Fashionable is the predicative adjective that describes the hat.
  • "That man seems generous."
    Generous is the predicative adjective that describes the male person.
  • "That book was heavy to carry."
    Heavy is the predicative adjective that describes the book.
  • "My computer is slow."
    Slow is the predicative adjective that describes the computer.
  • "That car is fast."
    Fast is the predicative adjective that describes the car.

Attributive Adjectives

Attributive adjectives are quite similar to predicative adjective but different in that attributive adjectives typically come before the noun or pronoun that they are modify, and qualify; and predicative adjectives do not.

Using the same sentences above that contain predicative adjectives, here is a list of the same sentences transformed into phrases that have an attributive adjective.

  • Predicative Adjective Sentence: "The TEAS examination was difficult."
    Attributive Adjective Phrase: "The difficult TEAS examination"
  • Predicative Adjective Sentence: "My hat was fashionable."
    Attributive Adjective Phrase: "My fashionable hat"
  • Predicative Adjective Sentence: "That man seems generous."
    Attributive Adjective Phrase: "That generous man"
  • Predicative Adjective Sentence: "That book was heavy to carry."
    Attributive Adjective Phrase: "That heavy book"
  • Predicative Adjective Sentence: "My computer is slow."
    Attributive Adjective Phrase: "My slow computer"
  • Predicative Adjective Sentence: "That car is fast."
    Attributive Adjective Phrase: "That fast car"

Nominal Adjectives

Nominal adjectives are often mistaken for nouns because nominal adjectives function somewhat like nouns in a phrase or sentence. Many nominal adjectives relate to masses or groups of people, places and things. For example, elderly, humble and evil are nominal adjectives that can also be used as nouns depending on their context and placement in a phrase or sentence.

Nominal adjectives shorten the length of the phrase or sentence.

Here are some examples of nominal adjectives.

  • "David likes to read science fiction books and prefers the evil ones"
    Evil is the nominal adjective.
  • "All the blind have courage"
    Blind is the nominal adjective.
  • "I liked the red dress but bought the blue."
    Blue is the nominal adjective.

Comparative and Superlative Adjectives

Adjectives can also be described as comparative and superlative adjectives. These comparative and superlative adjectives are often nominal adjectives as well as comparative and superlative adjectives.

Comparative adjectives compare two nouns and state which one is more than the other adjective.

Comparative adjectives consist of a phrase with the word "more" or an adjective that has an "er" at the end of the adjective as its suffix. For example, smarter, more petite, shorter and more wealthy are comparative adjectives.

Superlative adjectives, in contrast to comparative adjectives, consist of a phrase with the word "most" or an adjective that has an "est" at the end of the adjective as its suffix. For example, smartest, most petite, shortest and most wealthy are superlative adjectives.

Below are examples of sentences with comparative adjectives:

  • "Marilou is the taller of the twins."
    Taller is the comparative adjective.
  • "The blue care is more luxurious than the red car."
    More luxurious is the comparative adjective.
  • "Of the two movies, the first one was more interesting."
    More interesting is the comparative adjective and it is also a nominal adjective.
  • "The second home we saw was prettier than the first"
    Prettier is the comparative adjective.
  • "His sister is shorter than Mark."
    Shorter is the comparative adjective.

Because comparative adjectives compare two nouns, these sentence are NOT correct because each of these sentences compare more than two nouns:

  • Of all the football team players, Tom is the faster." It should be fastest and not faster because this sentence compares more than two nouns.
  • ."The ace of hearts shows up more than the other cards in the deck." It should be most and not more because this sentence compares more than two nouns; there are 52 cards in a deck of cards.
  • "Janet is the taller of the triplets." It should be tallest and not taller because this sentence compares more than two nouns; triplets is three children.

Below are examples of sentences with superlative adjectives:

  • "Marilou is the tallest of the triplets."
    Tallest is the superlative adjective.
  • Of all the football team players, Tom is the fastest of all."
    Fastest is the superlative adjective.
  • "The ace of hearts shows up the most often than the other cards in the deck."
    Most often is the superlative adjective.
  • "TEAS is the most difficult of all tests."
    Most difficult is the superlative adjective.

Because superlative adjectives compare more than two nouns, these sentence are NOT correct because each of these sentences compare more than two nouns:

  • Of all the football team players, Tom is the faster." It should be fastest and not faster because this sentence compares more than two nouns:
  • ."The ace of hearts shows up more than the other cards in the deck." It should be most and not more because this sentence compares more than two nouns:
    "Janet is the taller of the triplets." It should be tallest and not taller because this sentence compares more than two nouns:

Verbs

Verbs, another part of speech, is an action or the state of being.

Verbs are an essential part of a sentence. A collection or series of words is NOT a sentence if this series of words does NOT have a verb. Instead, these words are phrases and not sentences without a verb.

There are a couple of classifications and categories of verbs including:

Action Verbs

An action verb, as the classification implies, is a verb that conveys some physical or mental action that is occurring, has occurred or will occur.

Examples of action verbs are:

  • Run
  • Contemplate
  • Think
  • Play
  • Look
  • Ran
  • Looked
  • Will think
  • Will run
Verbs of Being

Verbs of being do not signify an action. Instead verbs of being tell you about the subject of the sentence in terms of what it is or what it is like.

Examples of verbs of being include:

  • Is
  • Has been
  • Was
  • Were
  • Will be
  • Had been
  • Are
Helping Verbs

Helping verbs, unlike action verbs and verbs of being, consist of two words. One word is a main verb and the other is the auxiliary verb. For example, "is creating" is a helping verb. "Is" is the auxiliary verb which is also a verb of being and "creating" is the main verb.

Here are some other examples of helping verbs:

  • Has been calling
  • Is causing
  • Will talk
  • Will see
  • Has been sitting

The Principal Parts of a Verb

The four principal characteristics of verbs are:

  • Present tense
  • Present participle
  • Past tense
  • Past participle

Participle is defined as the helping verb part of are verb. Present participles often end with "ing" and past participles end with "ed". When you see "ing" at the end of a verb, you should immediately know that the verb is occurring at the current time; and when you see "d" or "ed" at the end of a verb, you should immediately know that the verb has occurred in the past and NOT occurring at the present time and NOT going to occur in the future. In addition to these participle endings, present tense verbs such as "see", "hear" and "look" can be the main verbs in a present participle; and past tense verbs such as "saw", "heard" and "looked" can be the main verbs in a past participle.

The helping or auxiliary verbs that are most commonly used for the present participle include words such as "is", "are", "were" and "was".

The helping or auxiliary verbs that are most commonly used for the past participle include words such as "has", "had", and "have".

Examples of sentences with present participles are:

  • I am living a dream. ("am" is the helping verb and the auxiliary verb and "living" is the main verb)
  • He is studying for the TEAS examination on a daily basis. ("is" is the helping verb and the auxiliary verb and "studying" is the main verb)
  • They are staying home to watch a movie. ("are" is the helping verb and the auxiliary verb and "staying" is the main verb)
  • He was setting his own personal goals. ("was" is the helping verb and the auxiliary verb and "setting" is the main verb)
  • The school is having a fundraiser to raise money for the girls' soccer team. ("is" is the helping verb and the auxiliary verb and "having" is the main verb)

Examples of sentences with past participles are:

  • She had lived there in the 1990's. ("had" is the helping verb and the auxiliary verb and "lived" is the main verb)
  • She has just finished her TEAS examination. ("has" is the helping verb and the auxiliary verb and "finished" is the main verb)
  • They had won the state championship for three years in a row. ("had" is the helping verb and the auxiliary verb and "won" is the main verb)
  • The rain and thunder have continued for days. ("have" is the helping verb and the auxiliary verb and "continued" is the main verb)
  • Their school teams have raised enough money for the soccer team to get new uniforms. ("have" is the helping verb and the auxiliary verb and "raised" is the main verb)

Verbs must be:

  • In agreement with the tense of the sentence.
  • In agreement with the subject of the sentence.
  • In agreement with the noun of the sentence.
  • In agreement with the pronoun of the sentence.

Tense of the Sentence - Verb Agreement

Tense of the Sentence - Verb Agreement indicates the need for the verb to be in agreement with the tense of the sentence. For example, a present tense verb is indicated when a sentence is in the present tense; a past tense verb is necessary for agreement when the sentence is in past tense; and a future tense verb is needed when the tense of the sentence is in the future tense.

The tense of a verb, simply stated, tells you when the something has or will occur. The tense of a verb can be:

Present Tense

Present tense verbs indicate that the action or state of being is occurring at the present time, that is, the action or the state of being is occurring when the sentence is written or when the word is spoken.

There are two types of present tenses. One is the simple present tense and the other is the present progressive tense.

The simple present tense verbs refer to actions or the state of being that are currently occurring, actions or the state of being that occur over and over again like going to church every Sunday and actions or the state of being that is always true and occurring like the sun rises every day.

The present progressive tense, which also refers to the current time, includes those verbs that have a preceding verb of being.

Here are verbs in both the simple present tense and the present progressive tense so you are able to compare and contrast these two types of present tense verbs:

  • Simple present tense: Feel
  • Present progressive tense: Am feeling
  • Simple present tense: Shine
  • Present progressive tense: Is shining
  • Simple present tense: Try
  • Present progressive tense: Is trying
  • Simple present tense: Study
  • Present progressive tense: Is studying
  • Simple present tense: Think
  • Present progressive tense: Is thinking

As you can see with the above present progressive tense verbs, "is" was used when a singular present progressive tense verb was necessary and "are" was used when a plural present progressive tense verb was necessary.

Past Tense

Past tense verbs refer to actions or the state of being that has occurred before the present and before the future. Many past tense verbs are present tense verbs with "ed" added to the present tense verb. For example, play is a present tense verb and played is a past tense verb when "ed" is added to the present tense verb of play.

Past tense verbs also have two types. One of the types of past tense verbs is the simple past tense and the other type is the past progressive tense.

Here are verbs in both the simple present tense and the present progressive tense so you are able to compare and contrast these two types of present tense verbs:

  • Simple past tense: Felt
  • Past progressive tense: Was feeling
  • Simple past tense: Destroyed
  • Past progressive tense: Was destroyed
  • Simple past tense: Burned
  • Past progressive tense: Were burned
  • Simple past tense: Made
  • Past progressive tense: Was made
  • Simple past tense: Ate
  • Past progressive tense: Were eaten

As you can see with the above past progressive tense verbs, "was" was used when a singular past progressive tense verbs were necessary and "were" was used when a plural past progressive tense verb was necessary.

Examples of sentences with past tense verbs include:

  • Julius Caesar was a famous warrior and leader. (Was is the singular past tense verb in this sentence.)
  • They were notoriously evil. (Were is the plural past tense verb in this sentence.)
  • Franciscan monks joined the Crusades. (Joined is the past tense verb in this sentence.)
  • The first Super Bowl was played in the 1960s. (Played is the past tense verb in this sentence.)
  • Her mother died of a serious illness in 2002. (Died is the past tense verb in this sentence.)
  • Many Serbs lived during the middle ages. (Lived is the collective past tense verb in this sentence that describes what the Serbs, which is a collective noun that is treated as a singular noun in terms of noun-verb agreement according to singular or plural.)
Future Tense

Future tense verbs refer to actions or the state of being that will occur in the future. Future tense verbs will occur after the present and current time.

Future tense verbs include a word such as "shall" or "will" because future tense verbs refer to actions or the state of being that will occur in the future. Future tense verbs will occur after the present and current time. For example, he will play in the game tomorrow has a future tense verb which is "will play".

Examples of future tense verbs include:

  • Will be
  • Will Join
  • Will play
  • Will die
  • Will live

Examples of sentences with future tense verbs include:

  • He will be a good nurse. (Will be is the future tense verb in this sentence.)
  • They will join the Elks Club. (Will join is the future tense verb in this sentence.)
  • The American ski team will play in the next Winter Olympic games . (Will play is the future tense verb in this sentence.)
  • All of us will die. (Will die is the future tense verb in this sentence.)
  • Those plants will live longer if they get less water. (Will live is the future tense verb in this sentence.)
  • He shall begin his TEAS examination review tomorrow. (Shall begin is the future tense verb in this sentence.)
  • They shall see who the victors will be. (Shall see and will be are the future tense verbs in this sentence.)

Subject - Verb Agreement

Subject - Verb Agreement requires that verbs are in agreement with plural or singular nature of the subject of the sentence. If the subject of the sentence is singular, the verb must also be singular; and If the subject of the sentence is plural, the verb must also be singular.

Below are some singular verbs:

  • Is
  • Was
  • Works
  • Studies
  • Plays

Below are some plural verbs:

  • Are
  • Were
  • Work
  • Study
  • Play

Here are some sentences with singular verbs and singular subjects:

  • He is late for the family reunion. ("Is" is a singular verb in this sentence and "he" is a singular pronoun subject of the sentence.)
  • Gayle was lost in the woods. ("Was" is a singular verb in this sentence and "Gayle" is a singular noun subject of the sentence.)
  • She works full time as a nurse. ("Works" is a singular verb in this sentence and "she" is a singular pronoun subject of the sentence.)
  • She studies for the TEAS examination every day. ("Studies" is a singular verb in this sentence and "she" is a singular pronoun subject of the sentence.)
  • Tom Brady plays football for the New England Patriots. ("Plays" is a singular verb in this sentence and "Tom Brady" is a singular noun subject of the sentence.)
  • The team is ready to play. ("Is "is a singular verb in this sentence and the team is a singular noun subject of the sentence.)

Subject - Verb Agreement requires that verbs are in agreement with plural or singular nature of the subject of the sentence. If the subject of the sentence is singular, the verb must also be singular; and If the subject of the sentence is plural, the verb must also be singular.

Below are some singular verbs:

  • Is
  • Was
  • Works
  • Studies
  • Plays

Below are some plural verbs:

  • Are
  • Were
  • Work
  • Study
  • Play

Here are some sentences with singular verbs and singular subjects:

  • He is late for the family reunion. ("Is" is a singular verb in this sentence and "he" is a singular pronoun subject of the sentence.)
  • Gayle was lost in the woods. ("Was" is a singular verb in this sentence and "Gayle" is a singular noun subject of the sentence.)
  • She works full time as a nurse. ("Works" is a singular verb in this sentence and "she" is a singular pronoun subject of the sentence.)
  • She studies for the TEAS examination every day. ("Studies" is a singular verb in this sentence and "she" is a singular pronoun subject of the sentence.)
  • Tom Brady plays football for the New England Patriots. ("Plays" is a singular verb in this sentence and "Tom Brady" is a singular noun subject of the sentence.)
  • The team is ready to play. ("Is "is a singular verb in this sentence and the team is a singular noun subject of the sentence.)

Here are some sentences with plural verbs and plural subjects:

  • They are tardy all of the time. ("Are" is a plural verb in this sentence and "they" is a plural pronoun subject of the sentence.)
  • All of the team members were ready to play the football game. ("Were" is a plural verb in this sentence and the "members" is the plural noun subject of the sentence.)
  • The prospective nursing students are studying for the TEAS examination. ("Are" is a plural verb in this sentence and "students" is a plural noun subject of the sentence.)
  • The players of the hockey team work out during practice. ("Work" is a plural verb in this sentence and "players" is a plural noun subject of the sentence.)
  • The children in the 3rd grade play on Friday afternoons. ("Play" is a plural verb in this sentence and "children" is a plural noun subject of the sentence.)
  • These classmates are very disruptive during their math lesions. ("Are" is a plural verb in this sentence and "classmates" is a plural noun subject of the sentence.)

Here are some of sentences that do NOT have Subject - Verb Agreement for Nouns and Pronouns:

  • Grammatically Incorrect Sentence: She do not have any money. (The subject in this sentence, which is "she", is singular and the verb in this sentence, which is "do", is a plural form of a verb. The subject and the verb must be in agreement in terms of whether or not they are in the singular or the plural form.)

Corrected Sentence: She does not have any money. . (The subject in this sentence, which is "she", is singular and the verb in this sentence, which is "does", is a singular form of a verb. The subject and the verb are in agreement in terms of their singular form.)

  • Grammatically Incorrect Sentence: They does not have any money. (The subject in this sentence, which is "they", is plural and the verb in this sentence, which is "does", is a singular form of a verb. The subject and the verb must be in agreement in terms of whether or not they are in the singular or the plural form.)

Corrected Sentence: They do not have any money. . (The subject in this sentence, which is "they", is plural and the verb in this sentence, which is "do", is a plural form of a verb. The subject and the verb are in agreement in terms of their plural form.)

  • Grammatically Incorrect Sentence: The members of the team is ready to begin the competition. (The subject in this sentence, which is "members", is plural and the verb in this sentence, which is "is" a singular form of a verb. The subject and the verb must be in agreement in terms of whether or not they are in the singular or the plural form.)

Corrected Sentence: The members of the team are ready to begin the competition. (The subject in this sentence, which is "members", is plural and the verb in this sentence, which is "are", is a plural form of a verb. The subject and the verb are in agreement in terms of their plural form.)

Here are some of sentences that do NOT have Tense of the Sentence - Verb Agreement:

  • Grammatically Incorrect Sentence: Lily is studying when she discovered an easy way to multiply numbers by 100. (The first verb in this sentence, which is "studying" is in the present tense and the second verb in this this sentence, which is "discovered", is the past tense of a verb. Both verbs, therefore, must be either changed to the present tense or the past tense or there is no agreement with the verbs.)

Corrected Sentence Option 1: Lily is studying when she discovers an easy way to multiply numbers by 100. (The first verb in this sentence, which is "studying" is in the present tense and the second verb in this this sentence, which is "discovers", is also in the present tense of a verb. Both verbs, therefore, are in agreement with each other and in agreement with the tense of the sentence with is the present tense.)

Corrected Sentence Option 2: Lily was studying when she discovered an easy way to multiply numbers by 100. (The first verb in this sentence, which is "was studying" is in the past tense and the second verb in this this sentence, which is "discovered", is also in the past tense of a verb. Both verbs, therefore, are in agreement with each other and in agreement with the tense of the sentence with is the past tense.)

  • Grammatically Incorrect Sentence: Marilou will attend a family gathering while she vacationed. (The first verb in this sentence, which is "will attend", is the future tense and the second verb in this this sentence, which is "vacationed", is the past tense of a verb. Both verbs, therefore, must be either changed to the future tense or the past tense or there is no agreement with the verbs.)

Corrected Sentence Option 1: Marilou will attend a family gathering while she will be on (The first verb in this sentence, which is "will attend", is the future tense and the second verb in this this sentence, which is "will be", is also the future tense of a verb. Both verbs, therefore, are in agreement with each other and in agreement with the tense of the sentence with is the future tense.)

Corrected Sentence Option 2: Marilou attended a family gathering while she vacationed. (The first verb in this sentence, which is "attended", is the past tense and the second verb in this this sentence, which is "vacationed", is the past tense of a verb. Both verbs, therefore, are in agreement with each other and in agreement with the tense of the sentence with is the past tense.)

Other Categories of Verbs

Verbs can also be categorized and classified as these four major types of verbs:

Transitive Verbs

Transitive verbs are perhaps the most commonly used verb type. Transitive verbs are verbs that are followed by a noun, which is the direct object of the transitive verb. The noun following the transitive verb is acted on by the transitive verb.

Below are examples of sentences with transitive verbs:

  • The bully struck an innocent schoolmate. ("Stuck" is a transitive verb that impacts on and acts on the direct object of this sentence which is the "schoolmate".)
  • Martin Luther began the Lutheran religion. ("Began" is a transitive verb that impacts on and acts on the direct object of this sentence which is the "Lutheran religion".)
  • You have passed your TEAS examination. ("Passed" is a transitive verb that impacts on and acts on the direct object of this sentence which is your "TEAS examination".)
  • The 3rd grade teacher read a book to his students. ("Read" is a transitive verb that impacts on and acts on the direct object of this sentence which is the "book".)
Intransitive Verbs

Intransitive verbs, in contrast to transitive verbs, are not followed with a direct object. Instead, intransitive verbs are followed by an adverb or the end of a sentence.

Below are examples of sentences with intransitive verbs:

  • The bully struck again. ("Stuck" is an intransitive verb that is followed by an adverb which is "again". This adverb does not impact on or act on the object of this sentence; instead, this adverb gives you more detail about when the bully struck.)
  • The Lutheran religion was begun by Martin Luther. ("Was begun" is an intransitive verb; this intransitive verb does not have a direct object that it directly acts on or impacts.)
  • The crowd was boisterous. ("Was" is an intransitive verb that that does not impact on or act on the object of this sentence.)
  • A book was read. ("Read" is an intransitive verb that that does not impact on or act on the object of this sentence.)

A relatively simply way to differentiate between transitive and intransitive verbs is the reverse the order of the sentence. Transitive verbs are active voice verbs and intransitive verbs are passive voice verbs.

Here are some examples of how transitive and intransitive verbs can be identified and differentiated between:

  • Transitive verb sentence: The teacher read the book.
    Intransitive verb sentence: The book was read by the teacher.
  • Transitive verb sentence: The bully hit the children.
    Intransitive verb sentence: The children were hit by the bully.
  • Transitive verb sentence: My mother got a speeding ticket.
    Intransitive verb sentence: A speeding ticket was given to my mother.
  • Transitive verb sentence: Our team won the World Series .
    Intransitive verb sentence: The World Series was won by our team.
Ditransitive Verbs

Ditransitive verbs consist of those verbs that are followed by two objects. The first of these objects is an indirect object and the second object is a direct object.

Ditransitive verbs, in contrast to monotransitive verbs, which are most often simply referred to as transitive verbs, have two objects and monotransitive verbs have only one object.

As previously stated, a direct object is impacted on and acted upon by the verb and an indirect object is not acted and impacted on and by the verb. These indirect objects can consist of a noun phrases or a preposition phrase that is typically begun with the word "for" or "to".in a sentence with a ditransitive verb.

Here are some examples of sentences with ditransitive verbs:

  • Taylor sent her an email about the meeting. ("Taylor" is the subject of the sentence; "sent" is the ditransitive verb; "email" is the direct object; and "her" is the indirect object.)
  • Hard rock music gives me a headache. ("Music" is the subject of the sentence; "gives" is the ditransitive verb; "headache" is the direct object; and "me" is the indirect object.)
  • The teacher gave a book to the student. ("Teacher" is the subject of the sentence; "gave" is the ditransitive verb; "book" is the direct object; and "student" is the indirect object.)
  • The Jones family gave a contribution for the new church school. ("Family" is the subject of the sentence; "gave" is the ditransitive verb; "contribution" is the direct object; and "church" is the indirect object.)
Double Transitive Verbs

Double transitive verbs are similar to ditransitive verbs in one respect. Both ditransitive verbs and double transitive verbs have two objects, the first of which is a direct object. The difference between ditransitive verbs and double transitive verbs, however, is that double transitive verbs are followed with another noun phrase OR an adjective OR an infinitive.

Double transitive verbs are rarely used, so for the purpose of this discussion, no more details about double transitive verbs will be provided in order to prevent confusion with the three most commonly used verbs which are transitive verbs, intransitive verbs and ditransitive verbs.

The Active and Passive Voice of Verbs

:Lastly, verbs can be categorized and classified according to their voice. Verbs can be in:

The Active Voice

The active voice of a verb occurs when the subject of the sentence acts on, impacts on and performs the action of the verb.

Some examples of sentences in the active voice include:

  • They are studying for the TEAS examination at Cindy's home.
  • I am going to be successful on the TEAS examination.
  • I want to be a nurse.
  • I ate a large and delicious Thanksgiving dinner at my Grandmother's house.
The Passive Voice

The passive voice of a verb occurs when the subject of the sentence is acted on and impacted on by the verb.

Some examples of sentences in the passive voice include:

  • Thanksgiving dinner was eaten at my Grandmother's house.
  • Nursing is my dream career.
  • Studying for the TEAS examination will occur at Cindy's house.
  • TEAS examination success will be mine.

Here are some examples of sentences in the active voice that are transformed into passive voice sentences:

  • Active voice: The group saw the total eclipse in Tennessee.
    Passive voice: The total eclipse was seen by the group in Tennessee.
  • Active voice: AAA changed the flat tire.
    Passive voice: The flat tire was changed by AAA.
  • Active voice: The team won the state championship for Indiana.
    Passive voice: The state championship for Indiana was won by the team.
  • Active voice: Mary Grace made dinner for 30 people.
    Passive voice: Dinner for 30 people was made by Mary Grace.
  • Active voice: The 3rd grade children gave a concert at the school on Thursday night.
    Passive voice: A concert was given at the school on Thursday night.

Adverbs

Adverbs, similar to adjectives, modify words in some way.

Adverbs, another part of speech, modify, qualify, describe, amplify, lessen, limit and give more precise and exact meanings to verbs, other adverbs and adjectives. They can also modify some prepositional phrases. Adverbs are somewhat of a catch all with a wide variety of uses.

Simply stated, adverbs modify, qualify, describe, amplify, lessen, and give more precise and exact meanings to verbs, other adverbs, adjectives and prepositional clauses in contrast to adjectives, which modify, qualify, describe, amplify, lessen, and give more precise and exact meanings to nouns and pronouns.

Like adjectives, adverbs give sentences more exact and precise meaning.

Adverbs typically add meaning in terms of:

  • When
  • Where
  • How and in what manner
  • What degree or extent.

Many adverbs, as a part of speech, can be composed by simply adding "ly" to an adjective.

Here are some examples of adverbs that are formed by adding "ly" to an adjective:

  • Adjective: Quick
    Adverb: Quickly
  • Adjective: Studious
    Adverb: Studiously
  • Adjective: Loud
    Adverb: Loudly
  • Adjective: Soft
    Adverb: Softly

Here are some adverbs that modify verbs, in terms of when:

  • Yesterday
  • Tomorrow
  • Sooner
  • Swiftly
  • Immediately
  • Later

Examples of some sentences that use adverbs that modify verbs, in terms of when are, are those adverbs underlined below:

  • He visited yesterday.
  • He will visit tomorrow.
  • Harry arrived sooner than Joe.
  • Jane will swiftly correct that sentence.
  • The fire was immediately
  • Joe arrived later than Harry.

Here are some adverbs that modify verbs, in terms of where:

  • Here
  • There
  • Everywhere
  • Over there
  • Near

Examples of some sentences that use adverbs that modify verbs, in terms of where, are those adverbs underlined below:

  • He is here.
  • The treasure was found there.
  • The birds were singing everywhere.
  • The dead oak tree is over there.
  • He was near the explosion at the chemical factory.

Here are some adverbs that modify verbs, in terms of how and in what manner:

  • Expertly
  • Skillfully
  • Slowly
  • Rapidly

Examples of some sentences that use adverbs that modify verbs, in terms of how and in what manner, are those adverbs underlined below:

  • She expertly fixed the broken dish.
  • He skillfully calculated all of the TEAS mathematics questions without any errors.
  • I slowly learned how to ski downhill.
  • He rapidly extinguished the fire.

Here are some adverbs that modify verbs, in terms of to what extent and at what frequency:

  • Fully
  • Totally
  • Often
  • Rarely
  • Completely
  • Partially
  • Minimally
  • Maximally
  • Almost

Examples of some sentences that use adverbs that modify verbs, in terms of to what extent and at what frequency, are those adverbs underlined below:

  • She fully understood the instructions for the table game.
  • The car was totally
  • They often compete in chess.
  • They rarely see each other.
  • She partially understood the instructions for the table game.
  • The cake was minimally cooked.
  • The glass was maximally
    He almost won in the track and field competition.

Comparative and Superlative Adverbs

Adverbs, like adjectives, can also take on comparative and superlative forms. As previously stated, the comparative form of an adjective and an adverb compares two things and the superlative form of an adjective and an adverb compare and contrast more than two things.

Comparative adjectives compare two nouns and state which one is more than the other adjective.

Comparative adjectives consist of a phrase with more and an adjective that has an "er" at the end of the adjective. For example, smarter, more petite, shorter and wealthier are comparative adjectives.

Superlative adjectives, in contrast to comparative adjectives, consist of a phrase with most and an adjective that has an "est" at the end of the adjective. For example, smartest, most petite, shortest and most wealthy are superlative adjectives.

In contrast, however, to comparative and superlative adjectives, comparative and superlative adverbs are not accompanied with "er" for the comparative form of the adjective and "est" for the superlative form of the adjective.

Instead, comparative and superlative adverbs are accompanied with the words "more" for the comparative form of an adverb and "most" for the superlative form of the adverb.

Below are some examples of comparative adverbs:

  • More adeptly
  • More skillfully
  • More completely
  • More swiftly
  • More often

Below are some examples of superlative adverbs:

  • More adeptly
  • More skillfully
  • More completely
  • More swiftly
  • More often

Prepositions

Prepositions are the part of speech that adds necessary and important details into a sentence. There are about 100 prepositions that are used in the English language. Some of these prepositions are used more often than other prepositions.

Simply stated, prepositions are words that relate and somewhat connect words to each other in a phrase or a sentence. Specifically, prepositions indicate the relationship of and/or connection of a noun or a pronoun with another word in the sentence or phrase.

Some of the most commonly used prepositions include:

  • At
  • For
  • By
  • On
  • From
  • With
  • Out
  • In
  • On
  • Off
  • After
  • Before
  • About
  • Above
  • Below
  • Until

As you can see from the list above, many prepositions are opposites. For example, above and below are opposites, or antonyms, and in and out are opposites, or antonyms

Some of the less commonly used prepositions include:

  • Across
  • Against
  • Beneath
  • Beside
  • With respect to
  • With regard to
  • Excepting
  • Despite
  • Underneath
  • Regarding
  • Within
  • Concerning
  • Through

Below are examples of prepositions used in sentences. The prepositions are underlined so that you can readily see them and their relationship and connection with the noun, pronoun or another word in the same sentence.

Prepositions can be classified and categorized as prepositions that provide information about:

  • Where
  • When
  • Why and
  • A further description

Examples of prepositions that provide information about where and location are listed below:

  • In
  • Out
  • Over
  • Under
  • Above
  • Below

Examples of prepositions that provide information about when are listed below:

  • Before
  • After
  • Until
  • By

Examples of prepositions that provide information about why are listed below:

  • Beside
  • With respect to
  • With regard to
  • Excepting
  • Despite
  • Regarding
  • Because

Examples of prepositions that provide a connection to a further description of the noun, pronoun, or another word in a sentence are listed below:

  • Similar
  • Like
  • Unlike

Examples of sentences with 'prepositions are listed below. The prepositions are underlined in each of these sentences:

  • Mary Jane fell asleep during math class.
  • After the party, Joe found the envelope under a table.
  • As I sat on the shore, I saw a huge flock of eagles flying overhead in the wooded area.
  • The TEAS examination is so important despite the fact that it is difficult.
  • The TEAS examination is so important for prospective nursing students.

Conjunctions

Conjunctions, as the name implies are connectors that form junctions and linkages that connect words, clauses and phrases.

The two most commonly used conjunctions are "but" and "and". Other commonly used conjunctions include "and" "nor" and "so".

Conjunctions can be classified and categorized as:

Coordinating Conjunctions

Coordinating conjunctions include those conjunctions, or connecting words, that join more than two sentences, two or more main clauses, two or more words, two or more sentences and two or more parts of speech.

There are seven coordinating conjunctions in the English language and many can readily remember all seven of this with the mnemonic FANBOYS which represents the coordination conjunctions of:

  • For
  • And
  • Nor
  • But
  • Or
  • Yet
  • So

The coordinating conjunctions are underlined in each of these sentences:

  • Mary, Jane and Betty intend to attend their graduation from nursing school.
  • Followers of that religion do not smoke, nor consume alcoholic beverages.
  • The movie was without drama but it was interesting to see.
  • The choices are to go out for dinner or study for your TEAS examination.
  • Troy enjoys eating fruits yet he will no eat pineapples.
  • Our friend passed the TEAS examination so we went out for a celebratory dinner.

Coordinating conjunctions can be further classified as:

  • Adversative conjunctions
  • Cumulative conjunctions
  • Alternative conjunctions
  • Subordinating conjunctions

Correlative Conjunctions

Correlative conjunctions consist of a pair of conjunctions that are used in the same sentence in concert with each other.

Examples of commonly used correlative conjunctions are listed below:

  • Both…and
  • Either…or
  • Whether…or
  • Not only…but also
  • As much…as
  • As little…as
  • Rather…than

Here are some sentences with correlative conjunctions underlined:

  • Both my sister and I have grandchildren.
  • Either that care or the blue one will suffice.
  • It is time to decide whether you want to go to a local community college or a vocational school in this area.
  • Not only is water skiing difficult but also is downhill skiing.
  • As much as surfing the web is enjoyable, reading a book is as
  • As little as I dislike vegetables, fruits are as disagreeable to me.
  • I would rather attend a community college than a vocational school.

Subordinating Conjunctions

Subordinating conjunctions can join an independent clause and a dependent clause and they can also be utilized to preface an adverb clause.

The most frequently used subordinating conjunctions are:

  • After
  • Although
  • Because
  • Before
  • In order that
  • In order to
  • Since
  • So
  • Than
  • Though
  • Unless
  • When
  • Whenever
  • Where
  • While

Example of sentences with subordinating conjunctions are listed below. The subordinating conjunctions are underlined:

  • Until tomorrow, I am unable to go shopping.
  • I will follow when asked to.
  • She was ready to study whenever she had the time.
  • I took the TEAS examination while I had a fever.
  • Mark marched before.

Interjections

Interjections are the part of speech that expresses strong emotions and feelings, both positive and negative in nature. Curses and curse words are usually interjections. Interjections can be used in different types of sentences. For example, interjections can be used in declarative sentences, interrogatory sentences and in exclamatory sentences.

Interjections can be classified and categorized in several ways, including those listed below.

Primary Interjections

Primary interjections are those interjection words that function only as interjections and not other parts of speech. Examples of primary interjections are Oops, Huh and Oh.

Secondary Interjections

Secondary interjections are those interjection words that function as interjections and can also function as other parts of speech, including nouns and adjectives. Examples of secondary interjections are Hell, Shit and Terrible.

Single Word Interjections

Single word interjections consist of interjections that are only one word. Examples of single word interjections are Huh?, NO! and Alas.

Phrase Interjections

Phrase interjections, in contrast to single word interjections, consist of a phrase rather than simply one word. Examples of phrase interjections are Oh no, Oh my and Oh gosh.

Articles or Determiners

Articles, also referred to as determiners, describe, specify and limit another part of speech, primarily nouns, pronouns and noun phrases. They are sometimes considered a type of adjective, however, some of the literature separates articles and determiners from adjectives.

Common examples of articles or determiners are:

  • A
  • The
  • An
  • My

Examples of sentences that use articles or determiner are listed below. The article or determiner is underlined in each of these sentences:

  • She gave her mom a big hug.
  • The time has come.
  • A new car has arrived.
  • An adjective describes a noun or pronoun.
  • An article, as a part of speech, is very similar to an

Clauses, Phrases and Sentences

Clauses

As stated previously, a clause is the smallest of grammatical units, when compared to a phrase and a sentence. A clause consists of a subject and a verb phrase, a verb and perhaps an object of the sentence and a modifier like "the".

Clauses have a subject that is actively doing or performing the verb which is unlike a phrase which does not have a subject that is actively doing or performing the verb.

Here are some examples of clauses:

  • Mary Siret bullied
  • I smiled at
  • because I dislike her
  • since he is taller
  • The TEAS examination was

It is important to note that the above examples of clauses do NOT begin with a capital, or upper case, letter with the exceptions of the first clause that contains "Mary Siret" and the second phrase that contains the word "I". The reasons for the lack of a capital, or upper case, letter at the beginning of the other clauses is that these clauses are clauses and not sentences. Sentences, and not clauses or phrases, do NOT have to begin with a capital, or upper case, letter unless the phrase or clause begins with a proper noun, like "Mary Siret" or the pronoun like "I".

Additionally, these clauses are not ended with a period, a question mark or an exclamation point. The reason for this is that sentences, and not clauses or phrases, are ended with these mandatory forms of punctuation.

Clauses can be classified and characterized as:

Independent Clauses

Independent clauses are clauses consisting of a group or collection of words, that have a subject, have a verb and can stand independently and alone stand alone in a sentence if the author wishes to do so.

Here are some examples of independent clauses:

  • Mary recited the first paragraph of the poem…
  • She just couldn't stop…
  • The test taker was calm…
  • A loud clap of thunder occurred…
  • … as the band played on.

Dependent Clauses

Dependent clauses, similar to independent clauses, are a group or collection of words, that have a subject and that have a verb. Dependent clauses, however, are different from independent clauses because dependent clauses cannot stand independently and alone as a sentence like an independent clause can.

Here are some examples of dependent clauses:

  • as the other children listened
  • as the car skidded into a snow bank
  • despite the duration of the test
  • immediately after the lightning was seen
  • The Titanic sank

Below are examples of how the above independent clauses and dependent clauses can be appropriately combined with other words to form a grammatically correct sentence:

  • Mary recited the first paragraph of the poem as the other children listened.
  • She just couldn't stop as the car skidded into a snow bank.
  • The test taker was calm despite the duration of the test.
  • A loud clap of thunder occurred immediately after the lightning was seen.
  • The Titanic sank as the band played on.

Phrases

A phrase, on the other hand, is a series of words that does NOT have a subject that is performing or doing the verb like clauses do. Instead, phrases have nouns, pronouns and verbs.

Here are some examples of phrases that consist of nouns and verbs. It is important to note that none of these phrases begin with a capital letter. The reasons for the lack of a capital, or upper case, letter is these phrases is that none of the below phrases begin with a proper noun or the pronoun "I" which must be capitalized and because these phrases are not sentences which must begin with a capital, or upper case, letter; they are simply phrases.

Additionally, these phrases are not ended with a period, a question mark or an exclamation point. The reason for this is that sentences, and not phrases, are ended with these mandatory forms of punctuation.

Examples of phrases:

  • Crashed into pieces
  • After the holiday
  • During the game
  • Before the TEAS examination
  • Among many factors

POINT OF EMPHASIS: In terms of contrasting clauses and phrases, it is important to know that clauses have a subject that is actively performing or doing the verb and phrases do NOT have a subject that is actively performing or doing the verb.

Sentences

A sentence is a collection of one or more words that are correctly and grammatically linked to each other and convey and communicate a complete thought.

The basic elements of a sentence are a subject, a verb and a complete thought. If a group of words do not have one or more of these elements, it is a sentence fragment and NOT a sentence.

The major categories or types of sentences include:

Declaratory or Statement Related Sentences

Declaratory or statement related sentences, sometimes also referred to as declarative sentences, do what the name implies. They declare something or they make a statement about something.

They are a complete collection of one or more words that are correctly and grammatically linked to each other in order to convey and communicate a complete thought. A group of words is NOT a sentence but, instead, a sentence fragment or an incomplete sentence when it does not meet these criteria.

Most sentences are declarative, declaratory or statement related sentences and these sentences end with a period (.), which is also called an end stop.

Some examples of declarative, declaratory or statement related sentences include:

  • Some people use commas too frequently.
  • A phrase is a series of words that does NOT have a subject performing or doing the verb.
  • A clause, unlike a phrase, is a series of words that has a subject performing or doing the verb.
  • I can hardly wait until I can enter nursing school.

Interrogatory or Question Sentence

Interrogatory or question sentences, also referred to as interrogative sentences, do what the name suggests. Interrogatory or question sentences ask a question in a complete collection of one or more words that are correctly and grammatically linked to each other and that convey and communicate a complete thought. Unlike declarative, declaratory or statement related sentences, interrogatory sentences end with a question mark (?).

Here are some examples of interrogatory or interrogative sentences:

  • When did you schedule yourself for your TEAS examination?
  • What is the difference between a clause and a phrase?
  • What?
  • When?
  • Why?

Exclamatory Sentences

Exclamatory sentences are a collection of one or more words that are correctly and grammatically linked to each other and that convey and communicate a strong emotion or thought. These sentences are ended with an exclamation point (!) and not a period or another form of punctuation like a question mark.

Here are some examples of exclamatory sentences:

  • Wow!
  • I was so happy!
  • Please stop that now!
  • Quiet, please!
  • That TEAS test was horrible!

These sentences could also be grammatically correct declarative, declaratory or statement related sentences without the exclamation point. It is the author of the sentence that decides whether or not they want to simply convey a thought or convey a strong thought or emotion. If the author wants to simply convey a thought, they would end the sentence with a period which makes this sentence a declaratory sentence. If, though, on the other hand, the author wants to emphasize and convey a strong thought or emotion, the author would use an exclamation point and this exclamation point then makes the same sentence an exclamatory sentence.

Imperative or Command Sentences

Imperative or command sentences are a collection of one or more words that are correctly and grammatically linked to each other and that convey and communicate a command or imperative. Imperative or command sentences end with a period.

Here are some examples of imperative or command sentences:

  • Go to the store now.
  • You must start to study for your TEAS examination.
  • Close the door.
  • Turn the light off.
  • Go to bed.

These sentences could also be grammatically correct exclamatory sentences with the addition of an exclamation point at the end of the sentence instead of an end point period. Again, it is the author of the sentence who ultimately decides whether or not they want to simply convey a command or convey a strong thought or emotion. If the author wants to simply convey a command without strong emotion, they would end the sentence with a period which makes this sentence a command sentence. If, though, on the other hand, the author wants to emphasize and convey a strong thought or emotion associated with the command in the sentence, the author would use an exclamation point and this exclamation point then makes the same sentence an exclamatory sentence.

Lastly, sentences can be additionally further classified and categorized as:

Simple Sentences

Simple sentences are defined as sentences that have one, and only one, independent clause and no dependent clauses at all.

As you should recall, an independent clause is one that can stand alone and NOT be dependent on another clause and a dependent clause is a collection of words that cannot stand alone as a complete thought.

Some examples of simple sentences are:

  • It should be rainy tomorrow.
  • The children played.
  • It is time for school.
  • That dinner was delicious!
  • The seniors prevailed.

Hint: A simple sentence has one independent clause and NO dependent clause.

Compound Sentences

Compound sentences consist of multiple independent clauses, that is more than one independent clause or two or more independent clauses, that are connected and joined together with conjunctions, punctuation or both conjunctions and punctuation. Compound sentences, like simple sentences, do not have any dependent clauses.

Some examples of compound sentences are:

  • I like cooking but not baking.
  • I was there but you were not.
  • I studied so much for the TEAS examination so that I would succeed.
  • I knew the answer to that question but I forgot it.
  • It is so nice to enjoy a nice dinner and then watch a movie at home with the children.

Hint: A compound sentence has more than one independent clause and NO dependent clause.

Complex Sentences

Complex sentences consist of one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses. The independent clause can come before the dependent clause or the independent clause can come after the dependent clause.

When the dependent clause comes before the independent clause, a comma is used to separate the clauses.

Examples of complex sentences are listed below:

  • Since it was late, I had to go to bed. (The dependent clause comes before the independent clause. A comma is placed between the dependent clause and the independent clause.)
  • Regardless of color, I prefer the Ford car. (The dependent clause comes before the independent clause. A comma is placed between the dependent clause and the independent clause.)
  • Because they arrived late, I missed them at the show. (The dependent clause comes before the independent clause. A comma is placed between the dependent clause and the independent clause.)
  • I had to go to bed since it was late. (The independent clause comes before the dependent clause. There is no comma between the independent clause and the dependent clause.)
  • I prefer the Ford regardless of color. (The independent clause comes before the dependent clause. There is no comma between the independent clause and the dependent clause.)
  • I missed them at the show because they arrived late. (The independent clause comes before the dependent clause. There is no comma between the independent clause and the dependent clause.)

Hint: A complex sentence has one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses.

Compound - Complex Sentences

Compound - Complex sentences are a mix of compound sentences and complex sentences. Compound - Complex sentences are comprised of multiple independent clauses with at least one of these independent clauses having a dependent clause.

Here are some examples of Compound - Complex sentences:

  • You are done with that work, you can take a break. ("You are done" and "you can take a break" are independent clauses and "with that work" is the dependent clause.)
  • Marie, who is a nursing student, studied hard but she did not score well on her test. ("Studied hard" and "did not score well on her test" are independent clauses and "who is a nursing student" is the dependent clause.)
  • She called the police and checked for stolen objects which may have been stolen. ("Called the police" and "checked for stolen objects" are independent clauses and "which may have been stolen" is the dependent clause.)
  • Despite the fact that you think it is safe, I don't agree because it is not. ("Despite the fact that you think it is safe" and "I don't agree" are independent clauses and "it is not" is the dependent clause.)
  • That soldier was a real hero because she succeeded in saving her comrades who were in danger. ("That soldier was a real hero" and "she succeeded in saving her comrades" are independent clauses and "comrades who were in danger" is the dependent clause.)

Hint: A Compound - Complex sentence has at least two independent clauses with at least one of these having a dependent clause.

Lastly, sentences can be classified and categorized as:

Major Sentences

A major sentence is a regular sentences, as contrasted to an irregular sentence. A major sentence is a sentence that has a subject and a verb. This type of sentence has the subject and the verb as the main clause.

Examples of major sentences are:

  • Mary, I said no.
  • Is that Mary?
  • Hello my dear friend.
  • Goodbye, I'll see you next week.
  • We vowed to stay together for better or worse.

Minor Sentences

A minor sentence, on the other hand, is a sentence that is irregular and does not have a main clause in it.

Examples of minor sentences are:

  • No!
  • Mary?
  • Hello.
  • Goodbye.
  • For better or worse.

Diagramming Sentences

Diagramming sentences, not as often taught in elementary schools as it was in the past, is a very good way to be able to accurately analyze sentences and to insure correct sentence structure.

In this section, you will learn how to:

  • Diagram sentences according to a couple of methods
  • Closely examine and differentiate among different parts of speech that are used in a sentence
  • Apply the analysis of these sentences into sound and grammatically correct sentences
  • Critically analyze and evaluate the grammatical correctness of a sentence

A sentence diagram, also referred to as a parse tree, is a graphic picture of a sentence, the parts of a sentence, the parts of speech, the relationships among the parts of a sentence, the syntactic structure of the sentence and the grammatical flow and structure of a sentence.

The different methods for diagramming sentences are the:

The Reed-Kellogg System for Diagramming Sentences

The Reed-Kellogg system for diagramming sentences was started back in the 1800's and it is the basis and foundation for diagramming sentences using different methods. During the mid-20th century, almost every school age child learned to diagram sentences using this method.

The methodology behind the Reed-Kellogg system is shown below in a progressive sequence from the least complex and simplest of sentences to the most complex sentences that you may expect to see and be tested on with your TEAS examination.

As stated previously, a sentence must consist of at least a subject and a verb. Sentences that consist of only a subject and a predicate, or verb, are the simplest of all sentence structures.

The parts of a diagram according to the Reed-Kellogg System are:

  • ___________________________________ : The base of the sentence diagram is a straight horizontal line
  • |: A vertical line through the base of the sentence diagram is used to separate the noun from the verb or predicate

A Sentence Diagrammed Using the Reed-Kellogg System for Diagramming Sentences

An example of a sentence diagram for a sentence that merely consists of a subject and a verb is shown below.

  • The Sentence: Samantha cried.

The Subject of the Sentence: Samantha

The Predicate or Verb in the Sentence: cried

Samantha | cried

The base of this sentence diagram has the subject on the left side of the vertical line that passes through the base and it has the verb on the right side of the base, each of which are separated by the vertical line.

An example of a sentence diagram for a sentence that consists of a subject, a verb and an object of the sentence is shown below.

  • The Sentence: Jake hit Thomas.

The Subject of the Sentence: Jake

The Predicate or Verb in the Sentence: hit

The Object of the Sentence: Thomas

This Sentence Diagrammed Using the Reed-Kellogg System for Diagramming Sentences:

This sentence diagram is similar to the one above, however, this sentence has an object of the sentence and the previous sentence did not have an object.

When there is a direct object, the sentence is diagrammed as immediately below.

In this sentence, Thomas, is the direct object so a vertical line is placed after the verb.

Jake| hitIThomas

The base of this sentence diagram has the subject on the left side of the vertical line that passes through the base and it has the verb in the middle of the base, each of which are separated by the vertical line.

Additionally, this sentence diagram shows the direct object of the sentence, that is Thomas, on the rightmost portion of the baseline.

An example of a sentence diagram for a sentence that consists of a subject, a predicate and an adjective of the sentence is shown below.

  • The Sentence: Kittens are playful.

The Subject of the Sentence: Kittens

The Predicate in the Sentence: are is a predicate

The Adjective Following the Predicate: playful which is an adjective

This Sentence Diagrammed Using the Reed-Kellogg System for Diagramming Sentences:

Kittens| are \ playful

The base of this sentence diagram has the subject on the left side of the vertical line that passes through the base and it has a predicate in the middle of the base, each of which are separated by the diagonal line as shown above. This diagonal line is different from the vertical line that separates a verb and an object of a sentence. Lastly, playful is the adjective that describes what kittens do.

In summary, simple sentences are diagrammed as below using the Reed - Kellogg system

Simple sentences in the Reed-Kellogg system are diagrammed in accordance with the following basic schemata:

An example of a sentence diagram for a sentence that consists of a subject, a verb, an object and a modifier of the sentence is shown below.

  • The Sentence: The boys played kickball.

The Modifier of the Sentence: The

The Subject of the Sentence: boy

The Verb in the Sentence: Played

The Object of the Sentence: kickball

This Sentence Diagrammed Using the Reed-Kellogg System for Diagramming Sentences:

boys | played | kickball

The \

The base of this sentence diagram has the subject, which is boys, on the left side of the vertical line that passes through the base and it has the verb, which is played, in the middle of the base, each of which are separated by the straight vertical line that does not pass through the base, as shown above.

Lastly, this sentence has a diagonal line below the baseline that has the modifier, which is The, under the subject of boys because The tells you it is the boys.

As discussed previously, there are other modifiers such as adjectives and adverbs. Adjectives consist of a word or a phrase that further describes or modifies a noun or a pronoun; and an adverbs consist of a word or a phrase that further describes or modifies a verb, an adjective or another adverb.

An example of a sentence diagram for a sentence that consists of a subject, a verb, an object and an adjective modifier of the sentence is shown below.

  • The Sentence: Young girls like fantasy dress up.

The Adjectives of the Sentence: Young and fantasy

The Subject of the Sentence: girls

The Verb in the Sentence: like

The Object of the Sentence: dress up

This Sentence Diagrammed Using the Reed-Kellogg system for Diagramming Sentences:

girls | like Idress up

Young fantasy
\ \

An example of a sentence diagram for a sentence that consists of a subject, a verb, an object and an adverb modifier of the sentence is shown below.

  • The Sentence: Young girls often like dress up.

The Adjective of the Sentence: Young

The Subject of the Sentence: girls

The Verb in the Sentence: like

The adverb in the Sentence: often

The Object of the Sentence: dress up

This Sentence Diagrammed Using the Reed-Kellogg system for Diagramming Sentences:

girls | like | dress up

Young often
\ \

In summary, here are some more examples of diagramming sentences using the Reed- Kellogg system.

Constituency and Dependency System for Diagramming Sentences

The Constituency and Dependency system for diagramming sentences consists of separating constituency and dependency into two separate trees.

Constituency, simply defined, is a one to one relationship of the parts of a sentence in terms of a subject, verb, predicate and/or object of a sentence; and dependency, simply defined, are those parts of the sentence that depend on constituency and are shown on a second tree, as shown below.

Below is a sentence diagrammed according to the Constituency and Dependency system for diagramming sentences:

(D = Determiner, N = Noun, NP = Noun Phrase, S = Sentence, V = Verb, VP = Verb Phrase)

The Hybrid Trees System for Diagramming Sentences

Hybrid trees, as the same suggests, is a combination of the Reed-Kellogg and Contingency and Dependency systems of sentence diagramming.

Below shows how hybrid trees are developed:

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