Basic Terms and Terminology Relating to Identifying Specific Information From a Printed Communication

  • The salutation: The salutation is the opening greeting of a business letter or a friendly personal letter. The salutation for a business letter is followed by a colon (:) and NOT a comma, as is used in a friendly letter.
  • The valediction: The valediction is the closing of a business letter or a friendly personal letter.
  • Block formatting: One of the several types of formatting to a resume. This type of formatting has no indentations whatsoever; the entire content of the letter including headings, closings and the body of the letter, begin and remain at the left margin of the letter.
  • Modified block formatting: One of the several types of formatting to a resume. This type of formatting has the text, or the body, of the letter aligned along the left margin, but, the writer's address, the date of the letter and the closing of the letter are indented and not aligned along the left margin.
  • Semi-block formatting: One of the several types of formatting to a resume. Semi-block formatting is done in the same manner as modified block formatting with one exception. Semi-block formatting has the first line of each paragraph indented and the rest of the text or the body of the letter aligned along the left margin. Additionally, the writer's address, the date of the letter and the closing of the letter are indented and not aligned along the left margin.
  • Modified semi-block formatting: One of the several types of formatting to a resume. This type of formatting for a formal business letter includes the consistent indentation of the author's address, the date of the letter and the paragraphs of the letter in its body. All other text is left aligned.
  • A chronological resume: One type of resume that is characterized with a chronological portrayal of the resume writer's education and experiences in chronological order from the furthest past to the most current time
  • Reverse chronological resume: One type of resume that is characterized with a chronological portrayal of the resume writer's education and experiences in reverse chronological order from the most recent to the most distant past
  • A functional resume: One type of resume that, in contrast to a chronological resume and a reverse chronological resume, does not focus on the resume writer's previous jobs, years of employment and previous job responsibilities. Instead, a functional resume focuses strongly on the knowledge, skills, abilities and competencies of the resume writer
  • A combination hybrid resume: One type of resume that is a combination of the chronological resume and the functional resume. Typically, the combination hybrid resume begins with the functional focus on the knowledge, skill, abilities and the competencies of the resume writer and then this section is followed by a chronological listing of the resume writer's employment history, either in ascending order or reverse order.
  • The entry level resume: One type of resume that is typically used among new graduates for an entry level job in their new career of occupation.
  • Resume cover letter: The purpose of the cover letter, which is the first page of a resume packet, should amplify and emphasize the resume writer's strengths and how these strengths can meet and exceed the needs and expectations of the prospective employer.
  • Business memoranda: A formal written document that is often used in the office and the work environment. A memorandum is typically shorter, briefer and more concise than a letter or a formal report.
  • Fax: An electronically transmitted letter or memo
  • Fax cover sheets: Fax cover sheets insure that the facsimile gets to the correct person and/or office and/or department.
  • E mails: E mails in the work environment are expected to be professional, business like, grammatically correct and without spelling errors. The purpose of e mails is communication with others in the workplace.
  • Traffic and road public printed communication: Community and public printed forms of communication that advise the public of certain conditions, situations, prohibitions and warnings
  • Universal symbols that communicate information: Community and public printed forms of communication that advise the public of certain conditions, situations and warnings that typically alert the public to some health or safety hazard. Universal symbols should be understood by every member of the public in order for these symbols to be effective in terms of avoiding an accident or a health condition.
  • Newspaper articles: Online and hard print information for the public
  • Classified advertisements: Online and hard print announcements of job openings and job opportunities

Comprehending Printed or Written Communication

Like instructions and directions, we must be able to identify and comprehend information that is contained in printed or written communication in our daily personal life as well as in our daily work life and/or school life.

For example, licensed drivers must be able to see, comprehend and utilize traffic signs, healthcare workers must be able to identify universally accepted symbols such as those that indicate the presence of or the potential presence of radiation and biohazardous material; others in the workplace should be able to comprehend and understand office communication tools such as a memorandum, and students and test takers, such as you are as you are preparing for your TEAS examination, must be able to comprehend and understand questions and their special instructions on TEAS examination in order to successfully pass it.

Business and Work Related Printed Forms of Communication

Among the many types of business and work related printed communication are:

Letters

Business letters, as contrasted to friendly letters that are used with informal writing, have specific requirements and form.

Business letters have this format:

  • Margins: Typically 1 to 1 ¼ inches
  • Fonts: Traditional fonts, such as Arial and times new Roman, are acceptable for the composition of business letters.
  • Punctuation: Some punctuation marks, like exclamation points, are not used because they convey a strong emotion and formal writings, including business letters, should be free of strong emotions and, instead, they should convey objective facts and objectivity.
  • The salutation: The salutation, which is the opening greeting in a business letter, is followed by a colon (:) and NOT a comma, as is used in a friendly letter.
  • The valediction: The valediction, which is the closing of a business letter, is followed by a comma and then the author's signature. The valediction for the business letter can also be referred to as a complimentary, and NOT a complementary, closing.
  • Indentations, as discussed below, must be consistent in the specific business letter.

There are several acceptable formatting indentations that are acceptable for use in a formal business letter.

The acceptable formatting indentations for formal business letters include:

  • Block formatting: This type of formatting has no indentations whatsoever; the entire content of the letter including headings, closings and the body of the letter, begin and remain at the left margin of the letter.
  • Modified block formatting: This type of formatting has the text, or the body, of the letter aligned along the left margin, but, the writer's address, the date of the letter and the closing of the letter are indented and not aligned along the left margin.
  • Semi-block formatting: Semi-block formatting is done in the same manner as modified block formatting with one exception. Semi-block formatting has the first line of each paragraph indented and the rest of the text or the body of the letter aligned along the left margin. Additionally, the writer's address, the date of the letter and the closing of the letter are indented and not aligned along the left margin.
  • Modified semi-block formatting: This type of formatting for a formal business letter includes the consistent indentation of the author's address, the date of the letter and the paragraphs of the letter in its body. All other text is left aligned.

Read more about business letters.

Faxes

Faxes, also referred to as facsimiles, are somewhat similar to memos, which are discussed immediately below. Both memos and faxes are typically shortened and condensed form of written communication when compared and contrasted to other forms of written communication such as a business letter.

The difference between memos and faxes is that a fax and a fax cover sheet are electronically transmitted primarily to those external to and outside of the sender's organization or company and memos are sent with a hard copy to and from two persons, both of whom are both members of the same organization or company.

Fax cover sheets are sent with faxes in order to insure that the facsimile gets to the correct person and/or office and/or department.

Read more about fax cover letters.

Memorandums

As stated immediately above, memorandums or memos are similar to faxes in terms of their typical concise and brief nature and they are different in that memos are typically sent internally within an organization or company via inter-office or inter-departmental mail, and faxes are typically sent to those external to the organization or company.

Most memos are:

  • Rather brief and short in length, as contrasted to the extensive nature of some business reports. Memoranda are typically one page but some can be as long as two pages.
  • Single spaced
  • Left margin justified
  • Begun with a purpose statement
  • With a line that is skipped between paragraphs rather than indentation
  • With titled subsections that are consistent with the title of the memo
  • Most effective when lists and bullet points are included in its subsections
  • Closed with a closing or summary statement
  • Supplemented and augmented with attachments to further support the facts, opinions, requests and suggestions in the memo

Read more about business memos.

Resumes

Resume and cover letters are most often used for the purpose of gaining employment in a new company but they can also be used to get a different position and/or a transfer in the company that the person is currently employed.

Read more about the formality of resumes and RN resume & job application advice.

Resume Cover Letters

The purpose of the cover letter, which is the first page of a resume packet, should amplify and emphasize the resume writer's strengths and how these strengths can meet and exceed the needs and expectations of the prospective employer

Read more about cover letters.

Emails

E mails in the work environment are expected to be professional, business like, grammatically correct and without spelling errors. The purpose of e mails is communication with others in the workplace and external to the workplace, including those sent internationally.

Read more about business setting email.

Community and Public Printed Forms of Communication

Community and public printed forms of communication include:

  • Traffic and Road Public Printed Communication
  • Universal symbols that communicate information
  • Newspaper articles
  • Classified advertisements

Traffic and road public printed communication can include the printed word and symbols that we should also know, comprehend and follow when we are driving a car or you are a passenger in a car and assisting the driver with their navigation.

Some of this communication in the United States includes:

  • Regulatory signs like the speed limit on a particular road
  • Warning signs that alert people, for example, that there is fog or ice on the road or another advisory warning
  • Direction, position, or indication signs that alert the driver to the direction they are traveling, where they are and an indication of how many more miles, for example, there are to a major city or town
  • Driver location signs
  • Prohibitory signs that, for example, communicate that trucks are prohibited from using a particular road or highway and also signs that indicate handicapped parking only
  • Mandatory signs like a sign that states that all traffic must exit to the left
  • Special regulation signs that, for example, restrict the transportation of explosives over a bridge or through a tunnel
  • Informational signs like those that communicate traffic congestion on the road or other information like an Amber Alert or a road closure

Below are examples of traffic and road public printed communication. As you will see, many of these signs have both a written, printed message in addition to a graphic display of information to accommodate for those who are not literate and/or non English speaking.

The above sign restricts the area to only loading and unloading handicapped persons only.

The above sign indicates that your position is at the 0 mile marker.

The above sign indicates the presence of deer so that you are able to slow down and look to avoid a serious accident.

The above sign indicates that you have to yield the right of way to other drivers and to use caution.

There are countless examples of this type of communications to be made aware of.

Universal Symbols That Communicate Information

Universal symbols that communicate information are used to communicate with the public. One of the most commonly used universal symbols is the prohibition sign as shown below.

You'll find this sign used regularly to reflect you can't or shouldn't do something. An example:

Again, countless examples you'll see including but not limited do not swim, smoke, light fires, litter, ride bikes, ride skateboards, touch.

Newspaper Articles

Newspaper articles are another form of written communication with the public. Unlike yesteryear, newspapers and newspaper articles can be read online in addition to newspapers in print form.

The sections of a newspaper typically include:

  • International news
  • National news
  • Public announcements
  • Local news
  • Obituaries
  • Special interest stories like travel and cooing
  • Commercial advertisements
  • Classified advertisements

For the purpose of this TEAS review, we will further discuss classified advertisements which you should be knowledgeable about; and, the other parts of a newspaper, as listed above, are self-explanatory.

Classified advertisements are used for a number of purposes including the sale of goods and services as well as classified ads that announce job openings.

If you are seeking employment you should carefully read these advertisements and scrupulously follow the instructions and directions contained in the ad that you are interested in. A failure to scrupulously follow the instructions and directions in the ad will most often lead to your not being considered for the job.

Some of the information, instructions and directions in an employment classified ad include:

  • The job title
  • The location of the job
  • The education and experiences that are needed to qualify one for the job
  • Hours and place of employment
  • Perhaps the salary or a statement such as "salary negotiable" or " salary based on experience"
  • The requirements to apply for the job

Although it is important to fully understand and comprehend the entire job related classified ad, it is especially important for you to follow the directions and instructions on how to apply for the job. Among the many ways that prospective employers want applicants to apply for the advertised job are:

  • Applying in person
  • Sending a resume to a particular department or person using the US mail
  • Going online to complete and application and/or to submit a resume

If a resume or an application is requested, the reader of the classified ad must carefully read and comprehend the requirements for the job and the description of the job so that the application and/or resume that is submitted to the prospective employer must focus on and emphasize the applicants' knowledge, skills and abilities that meet or exceed these requirements.

RELATED TEAS KEY READING IDEAS & DETAILS CONTENT: