Basic Terms and Terminology Relating to Using Evidence From a Text to Make Predictions and inferences and to Draw Conclusions About a Piece of Writing

  • Explicit: Something that is clearly stated and in enough detail to make it unambiguous and without any confusion or doubt. Things that are explicit are exact, specific, exact, detailed and unambiguous.
  • Implicit: The antonym, or opposite, of explicit. Words that are implicit are not clearly stated, but instead, implicit words or sentences are suggested, not expressed, not declared or stated, tacit and implied. Implicit statements, however, are silently understood and they can also be induced or deduced from the reading passage.
  • Deductive reasoning: The ability to come to a conclusion as based on a premise; deductive reasoning arrives at deductions that a deduced as based on a premise.
  • Inductive reasoning: The ability to draw a generalization from a set of facts; inductive reasoning arrives at inferences that are inferred from a set of facts or observation.
  • Abductive reasoning: Reasoning that is a type of inference that moves from observations and data to a hypothesis.
  • Critical thinking: Deep reasoning that facilitates the best decisions and to solve complex issues and problems
  • Data: Pieces of information and evidence

Comprehending Evidence in a Text

There are often times when conclusions to a text are not explicit and obvious. Instead, they are implicit and hidden. As you should recall, explicit words, phrases, sentences paragraphs and even entire books are clearly stated and in enough detail to make them unambiguous and without any confusion or doubt. Things that are explicit are exact, specific, exact, detailed and unambiguous. On the other hand, implicit words, phrases, sentences paragraphs and even entire books are not clearly stated, but instead, implicit words or sentences are suggested, not expressed, not declared or stated, tacit and implied. Implicit statements, however, are silently understood and they can also be induced or deduced from the reading passage.

In the past, you may have seen a movie or read a book that ends "as a cliff hanger". These movies and books allow the viewer of the movie or the readers of the book to make an "educated guess" and an "educated prediction" about the conclusion using special thinking and logical skills.

Some of the special thinking and logical skills and strategies that you can and should use when you have to make an "educated guess" and an "educated prediction" about a conclusion.

  • Deductive reasoning: The ability to come to a conclusion as based on a premise; deductive reasoning arrives at deductions that a deduced as based on a premise.
  • Inductive reasoning: The ability to draw a generalization from a set of facts; inductive reasoning arrives at inferences that are inferred from a set of facts or observation.
  • Abductive reasoning: Reasoning that is a type of inference that moves from observations and data to a conclusion.
  • Critical thinking: Deep reasoning that facilitates the best decisions and to solve complex issues and problems

As you are applying these skills and reading a text, you should identify and collect as much data, information and evidence as possible to support a conclusion that is not explicit, but only comprehendible by making logical and well thought out predictions about what may or could occur and the conclusion of the story.

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